The introduction of the principles of Vauban into Vietnam in the late 18th century created a great change in the Vietnamese art of citadel construction. Skull sunflower they whispered to her you can’t withstand the storm shirt. Although Vietnamese engineers were taught by the French, they then managed the construction by themselves without foreign help. According to Frédéric Mantienne, the citadel in Vietnam was considered unique in Asia, including the Western colonies. Vietnamese engineers transform the technique to suit the local environment and capture new developments in Europe. From the end of the 18th century to the mid-19th century, they applied advanced European techniques to the construction sector. By comparison, the French attaché who accompanied the Anglo-French army to attack China in 1860 examined how to defend the ramparts and the Tianjin guard fortresses. He notes that the Chinese are still at a rudimentary level in the construction of the citadel, not necessarily equivalent to Medieval Europe in defending and attacking fortresses.