Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), started the modern observational exploration of the heavens, actually of space, utilizing new methods and instruments of science. In the formulation of Aristotle taught that the laws of nature that applied on Earth did not essentially apply past the Earth, thus If my kid is dirty it’s because my kid actually plays outside so mind ya business shirt severely limiting the very potentialities for human space exploration. By 1968, Soviet scientists developed techniques for returning a Moon orbiter safely to the Earth. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the primary synthetic satellite , Sputnik 1, into Earth orbit. “Space Exploration.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences.