The German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss referred to arithmetic as “the Queen of the Sciences”. Haskell Curry defined arithmetic merely as “the science of formal systems”. Formalist definitions identify arithmetic with its symbols and the rules for operating on them. Intuitionist Pitbull american flag shirt definitions, growing from the philosophy of mathematician L. E. J. Brouwer , identify arithmetic with sure psychological phenomena. An early definition of arithmetic by way of logic was Benjamin Peirce ‘s “the science that draws crucial conclusions” (1870).
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